600 – 590 BC
- In 600 BC the Greek Phoceans (Phocians/Phokians) defeated a force of Carthaginians which allowed them to build a settlement called Massalia (modern day Marseilles) in modern-day Southern France.
589 – 580 BC
- When Rome was ruled by Lucius Tarquinius Priscus the Latins went to war with Rome on two occasions.
- On the first, which according to the Fasti Triumphales occurred prior to 588 BC, Tarquinius took the Latin town of Apiolae by storm, and from there brought back a great amount of loot to Rome.
- On the second occasion, Tarquinius subdued the entirety of Latium, and took a number of towns that belonged to the Latins or which had revolted to them: Corniculum, old Ficulea, Cameria, Crustumerium, Ameriola, Medullia and Nomentum, before agreeing to peace.
- In Sicily the Hellenised City state of Segesta was in constant conflict with Selinus (modern Selinunte), which probably tried to assure itself a port on the Tyrrhenian Sea. The first clashes were in 580-576 BC.
579 – 570 BC
- Rome's sixth king Servius Tullius went to war with the Veii (after the expiry of an earlier truce) and with the rest of the Etruscans. Little is said of the war, except that the king was conspicuous for his valour and good fortune, that he routed a great army of the Etruscans and Veientes on 25 November 571 BC, and that the war helped cement his position at Rome, he having only recently become king.
- In 580 BC the Rhodians and Cnidians colonised the Lipari islands north of Sicily. From there they were constantly attacking Etruscan ships.
- Servius ‘s second victory over the Etruscans on 25 May 567 BC. A third victory over the Etruscans was achieved, but no date is known.
- No significant recorded events.
- The naval Battle of Alalia took place between 540 BC and 535 BC off the coast of Corsica between Greeks and the allied Etruscans and Carthaginians. A Punic-Etruscan fleet of 120 ships defeated a Greek force of Phocean ships while emigrating to the western Mediterranean and the nearby colony of Alalia (now Aléria). The Greeks fended off the Punic-Etruscan fleet at great cost and decided to evacuate Corsica, which was captured by the Etruscans, while Carthage maintained its hold on Sardinia.
- Battle of Cumae 524 BC.
- An army of Tyrrhenians, Umbrians, Daunians “and many other barbarians” (Dionysios/Dionysius of Halicarnassos) appeared suddenly in the Campanian plain. Outnumbered the smaller Cumaen forces took on the Etrusco-Italian army numbering up to 50,000 infantrymen, mostly lightly armed, and 1,800 cavalrymen and horsemen.
- The Cumaeans faced the invasion with 12,000-13,500 infantrymen and 1,800 horsemen, forces which the relatively small Cumae, could not master (although this force included certainly several Italiote and Italian mercenaries). The most likely explanation is that the Cumaean army included military forces that other Greek cities had sent to Cumae.
- The Phocean city of Massalia (Massalla) subjugated the neighbouring Ligurians and annexed the aforementioned neighbouring Greek city-state Heraclea-Mastrabala (around 520 BC).
519 – 510 BC
- Lucius Tarquinius Superbus instigated a war against the Volsci, taking the wealthy town of Suessa Pometia. He then engaged in a war with Gabii, one of the Latin cities that had rejected the treaty with Rome. Unable to take the city by force of arms, Tarquin resorted to another stratagem. His son, Sextus, pretending to be ill-treated by his father, and covered with the bloody marks of stripes, fled to Gabii. The infatuated inhabitants entrusted him with the command of their troops, and when he had obtained the unlimited confidence of the citizens, he put to death, or banished on false charges, all the leading men of Gabii, after which he had no difficulty in compelling the city to submit. He also won a victory over the Sabines, and established Roman colonies at the towns of Signia and Circeii.
- The Spartan prince Dorieus led an expedition of colonists to Sicily in 510 BC. The Spartans landed in Sicily and attempted to found a settlement at a place called Heracleia (or support the existing mid-6th Cent settlement of Minoa at the same location). in the western part of the island near Eryx. However, an alliance of the Carthaginians and Segestans opposed the enterprise and defeated Dorieus and his forces in a battle. Dorieus and most of the leading figures of his expedition were killed.
- In 509 BC, having angered the Roman populace through the pace and burden of constant building, Tarquinius Superbus embarked on a campaign against the Rutuli. At that time, the Rutuli were a very wealthy nation, and Tarquin was keen to obtain the spoils that would come with victory, in hopes of assuaging the ire of his subjects. Failing to take their capital of Ardea by storm, the king determined to take the city by siege.
- The Battle of Silva Arsia was a battle in 509 BC between the republican forces of ancient Rome and Etruscan forces of Tarquinii and Veii led by the deposed Roman king Lucius Tarquinius Superbus. The battle took place near the Silva Arsia (the Arsian forest) in Roman territory, and resulted in victory to Rome but the death of one of her consuls, Lucius Junius Brutus. Later in 509 BC Roman Consul Valerius returned to fight the Veientes.
- Tarquinius, having failed to regain the throne using his allies of Tarquinii and Veii, next sought the aid of Lars Porsena, king of Clusium in 508 BC. A potentially semi-mythical seige of Rome culminated in a peace settlement.
- In 505–504 BC there was war between republican Rome and the Sabines. Although Livy makes no mention of the involvement of the Etruscans, the Fasti Triumphales record that the consul Publius Valerius Poplicola celebrated a triumph over both the Sabines and the Veientes in May, 504 BC.
- In 503 BC two Latin towns, Pometia and Cora, said by Livy to be colonies of Rome, revolted against Rome. They had the assistance of the southern Latin Aurunci tribe.
- A Roman army led by the consuls Agrippa Menenius Lanatus and Publius Postumius Tubertus met the enemy on the frontiers and was victorious, after which the war was confined to Pometia. Many enemy prisoners were slaughtered by each side. The consuls celebrated a triumph, however the Fasti Triumphales record that an ovation was celebrated by Postumius and a triumph by Menenius, both over the Sabines.
- In the following year the consuls were Opiter Virginius and Sp. Cassius. Livy says that they attempted to take Pometia by storm, but then resorted to siege engines. However the Aurunci launched a successful sally, destroying the siege engines, wounding many, and nearly killing one of the consuls. The Romans retreated to Rome, recruited additional troops, and returned to Pometia. They rebuilt the siege engines and when they were about to take the town, the Pometians surrendered. The Aurunci leaders were beheaded, the Pometians sold into slavery, the town razed and the land sold. Livy says the consuls celebrated a triumph as a result of the victory. The Fasti Triumphales record only one triumph, by Cassius (possibly over the Sabines although the inscription is unclear).
- The Spartan Greeks of Tarentum (modern-day Taranto), located on the 'arch' of Italy's 'boot', defeat the Iapyges, Messapii, and Peucetii (Illyrian tribes). This appears the be the first stage of a war that continues until 467 BC, but the Iapyges are not mentioned again in connection with it.
Mostly this data was collated from various pages on Wikipedia and cross-referenced against 'historical sources' and modern interpretations as to accuracy of the latter.